Wednesday, March 17, 2010

China to Restrict Polysilicon Production (GreenTech Media)

China to Restrict Polysilicon Production

Solar demand is growing, but China wants to prevent a bust.

China will issue detailed entry standards for domestic polysilicon companies, a measure designed to prevent a production boom/bust cycle.

In 2009, China's estimated polysilicon production output skyrocketed by 300% against 2008 levels to reach 18,000 tons, fulfilling half of domestic demand. These data were reported by Li Baoshan, secretary general at Beijing-based Chinese Renewable Energy Society, on March 16 at Shanghai's 6th China SoG Silicon and PV Conference (CSPV).

Thanks to a flood of new entrants in 2008, Chinese polysilicon production output broke into the five-digit numbers for the first time. However, that surge has also brought worries about oversupply, as capacity for the country's completed projects, under-construction projects and planned projects reached about 44,000 tons, 68,000 tons and 126,700 tons respectively as of September 2009, according to Wang Bohua, deputy counselor of China's Industry and Information Technology Ministry.

Meanwhile, Mr. Wang reported that the upcoming entry standards will follow the government plan issued last September, restricting new polysilicon projects with less than 3,000 tons of annual capacity and high power consumption. However, Mr. Wang declined to disclose the issue date and other details.

Another variable that will impact China's polysilicon production is the central government's plan to set up silicon products standards based on market demand and producers' technical levels, he added.

Statistics from China's Industry and Information Technology Ministry show that mainland China produced over 4,000 megawatts of PV cells in 2009, using about 32,000 tons of polysilicon in the process.

Tuesday, March 16, 2010

High-speed China changes rail landscape

High-speed China changes rail landscape

Financial Times
By Jamil Anderlini in Beijing
Published: March 16 2010

For decades the high-speed railway sector has been dominated by a handful of companies in Europe, Japan and North America, which have mostly concentrated on projects in their own regional markets.

But just as the industry is witnessing a proliferation of high-speed rail projects across the globe, the rapid rise of Chinese state-owned rail producers is posing a serious threat to the dominance of companies such as Germany’s Siemens, France’s Alstom, Canada’s Bombardier and Japan’s Kawasaki.

“Chinese companies are changing the landscape of the global railway market because of the dimensions of their home market and because they are becoming involved in international tenders, which is new,” said Dominique Pouliquen, Asia-Pacific managing director for Alstom.

Monday, March 15, 2010

US lawmakers attack China ahead of Nov. elections

WASHINGTON — China is once again the country Congress loves to hate.

After a lull last year, U.S. politicians jockeying ahead of crucial November elections have stepped up attacks on China as a way to win support from voters worried that the Asian power is taking American jobs.


Wang Baodong, spokesman for the Chinese Embassy in Washington, said his country's currency policies "are above blame." He urged Americans to make a "fair and objective assessment on this and not mix things up with domestic politics."


In tough economic times, U.S. lawmakers often lock onto a foreign country they can blame. In the 1980s and 90s, it was Japan. Over the last decade, China has become a reliable punching bag, especially during election season. As China continues to boom and America continues to hurt, the congressional urge to punish Beijing will grow.

China Idles 40% of Windpower Turbine Output Capacity (Update5)

Methane Hydrates in Qinghai Province

Just don't ask us to live anywhere near there ... lol

Buried below the tundra of China’s Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a type of frozen natural gas containing methane and ice crystals that could supply energy to China for 90 years. China discovered the large reserve of methane hydrate last September, and last week the Qinghai Province announced that it plans to allow researchers and energy companies to tap the energy source. Although methane hydrate is plentiful throughout the world, the key challenge for China and other nations will be to develop technologies to excavate the fuel without damaging the environment.

China to move ahead on clean energy "combustible ice"

China moves into S. America

Deal for South American Oil Fields Extends China’s Global Quest for Energy

China’s top offshore oil explorer, said on Sunday that it had secured a South American beachhead by agreeing to pay $3.1 billion in cash for a stake in one of the largest Argentine oil explorers, with fields in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile.
Kin Cheung/Associated Press
Cnooc's chief executive, Fu Chengyu, said the company's deal with Bridas of Argentina was “to expand our global footprints.”
The acquisition is the Chinese oil industry’s latest move to expand its reach around the world. Starting at the beginning of the decade, companies like PetroChina, Sinopec and Cnooc began buying assets across Africa, Asia and the Middle East to drive the country’s booming economy. More recently, they have struck deals to develop Iraq’s huge reserves and Canada’s oil sands.
Cnooc, a unit of the China National Offshore Oil Corporation, said it would form a joint venture with the Argentine oil explorer, Bridas Energy, by acquiring a 50 percent share in one of the company’s subsidiaries, the Bridas Corporation.
The Bridas unit has proven reserves of 636 million barrels of oil, and daily production of 92,000 barrels a day. It owns 40 percent of Pan American Energy, the Argentine oil producer, with BP owning the rest.

Sunday, March 14, 2010

China undervaluing its currency at the expense of other countries

Not directly related to energy, but an interesting bit on China's trade policies (and possible explanation for such cheap solar panels!):

Monday, March 8, 2010

Two Years Later, New Rumblings Over Origins of Sichuan Quake

Science 5 March 2010:
Two Years Later, New Rumblings Over Origins of Sichuan Quake

Richard A. Kerr and Richard Stone
BEIJING—When experts suggested that the disastrous 2008 Wenchuan earthquake might have been triggered by the reservoir behind the Zipingpu Dam, establishment scientists in China remained largely silent (Science, 16 January 2009, p. 322). Now they've weighed in, ruling out reservoir triggering. But
many earth scientists don't buy their arguments.

No large quake had ruptured the Beichuan-Yinxiu fault in southwestern China's Sichuan Province in at least a millennium or two. Then engineers built Zipingpu Dam on the Min River just 500 meters from the fault and in late September 2005 began filling it with upward of 900 million tons of water. Two-and-a-half years later, the magnitude-7.9 Wenchuan earthquake got started 5 kilometers from the reservoir.

In the January issue of International Water Power and Dam Construction, three dam engineers at the China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research here argue that the Zipingpu-Wenchuan situation was so unlike that of the four largest known reservoir-triggered earthquakes—all in the magnitude-6 range—that there could not have been a connection between reservoir and quake. The authors, led by structural engineer Chen Houqun, who has co-authored China's design code for building earthquake resistance into dams, contend that the timing was mere coincidence.

Transport Outlook

An article published last year on transportation in China  at Yale's Environment360 site. It's optimistic about the chance for China to take a better, cleaner path.

"Chinese mobility isn’t yet fixated on cars, except maybe in Beijing, where pro-car policies mean that new highways are built as quickly as old ones fill up. An enlightened car policy is key. Stronger metropolitan institutions such as regional planning commissions are needed to protect the environment, manage land development, and provide public transportation. China’s increasingly entrepreneurial culture must be allowed to leapfrog to new technologies that thrive at home and could be exported abroad, such as lightweight, plug-in hybrid vehicles, new electric-car infrastructure advances, and real-time, wireless travel information devices.

Will China actually play a leadership role in transforming vehicles, fuels, mobility, and land use? We think so, for a variety of reasons. For one, some in China are beginning to recognize the Faustian bargain of automotive industry success. They gain jobs, but suffer a raft of environmental, social, and even economic problems. China’s strong national and local governments could pave the way for precedent-setting fiscal and regulatory policies, such as emission-indexed vehicle user fees. The Chinese government is capable of strong and effective intervention, as demonstrated with its one-child policy. Imagine a similar policy applying to car ownership."

Also of note:

China is "well positioned to respond to internal demands and international initiatives. Novel technologies are already sweeping China. Electric two-wheelers are the most successful mass-marketed battery-powered electric vehicles in the world, with sales exceeding 15 million in China in 2007. They have immediate air-quality benefits, set the stage for a shift toward cleaner three- and four-wheel electric vehicles, and accelerate the development of the low-cost battery sector.

University of California, Berkeley
The popularity of electric two-wheelers in China may accelerate the growth of the electric-vehicle industry.

Sunday, March 7, 2010

Chinese solar firm one of many taking US market

Chinese solar firm SunDurance Energy is capturing an increasing amount of US market share as it plans to move beyond California into New Jersey. Meanwhile market share of states, such as California, by Chinese firms, SunDurance included, is increasing as European subsidies for raw materials decline and as Chinese firms continue to control costs so tightly.

Read the NYTimes blog post here.

Thursday, March 4, 2010

China editorials call for end to residency permit rules (Hukou System)

A piece of news on a call to end the Hukou system in China (we discussed this during the urbanization presentation). Call comes on the eve of annual meeting of Chinese legislators ...


By Shirong Chen

BBC China editor

One of the toilet-dwellers ( image courtesy Hu Yuanyong/Zhejiang Morning Express)

Living conditions are hard for migrants, this woman lives in a toilet

More than a dozen Chinese newspapers have published a joint editorial calling for the abolition of the household registration or "hukou".

This system limits rural migrants' access to services in China's more prosperous cities.

The appeal, which has attracted widespread support from internet-users, comes on the eve of the annual meeting of Chinese legislators later this week.

The hukou was introduced in the 1950s as a tool of central economic planning.


The editorial uses strong language, beginning by saying "long has China suffered from the ills of the hukou system!" and "all men were created free to move".

The hukou system registers every Chinese citizen according to their household origins as either town dwellers or country peasants.

Nowadays it is widely seen as a source of discrimination in terms of access to services like healthcare and education.

Since economic reforms began 30 years ago, many Chinese migrant workers have left the land to contribute to the country's rapid growth and industrialisation.

But they remain registered as rural dwellers and are not entitled to the same welfare as their city counterparts.

This has created social inequality.

The editorial says the system is unconstitutional and urges the people's deputies gathering in Beijing to overhaul it completely.

As well as being fairer, it says this would benefit China's economy as it would free up more labour and create more domestic demand.

The Chinese Prime Minister, Wen Jiabao, admitted on Saturday that the bulk of the country's industrial workforce was now made up of migrant workers from the countryside.

However, it could take years to completely separate the hukou system from welfare provision, and eventually abolish it in the world's most populous country.

Awesome-tastic Video to Learn Pinyin

This video is a great video to learn how to pronounce Chinese words. A crucial thing to know when using your Chinese vocabulary sheet.

Greentech Media on BYD

Look Out, Greentech World: China’s BYD is Coming

And it’s building cars, EVs, batteries, solar panels and more.

When Micheal Austin worked at Motorola, he was responsible for buying lithium-ion batteries for Motorola's mobile phones. His suppliers were the usual Japanese suspects and they were being, let's say, less than fair on price. That is, until China's BYD emerged as a supplier and shattered the Japanese battery cartel. BYD went on to become Motorola's primary battery supplier and eventually became the private-label supplier of many of Motorola's entire phones, not just the battery. Today, Austin is the VP of BYD America.

So who is BYD?

They might be the quietest 160,000-employee electronics contract manufacturing, OEM, and private labeling powerhouse you've never heard of. And they're coming to an automobile dealership, solar roof, and utility-scale battery application near you. Soon.

And if you're an auto maker, or an EV builder or a solar panel manufacturer -- it might be time to be a little scared.

BYD was founded in 1995, went public in 2002, started building cars in 2003 via an acquisition, and started building solar panels in 2008.

BYD is now one of the largest car makers in the world -- having shipped 450,000 cars last year and 60,000 cars last month (!). Their e6 electric vehicle is coming to the U.S. late this year and boasts a 205-mile range and a top speed of 87 mph. It does zero to 60 mph in 14 slow seconds and boasts a recyclable and relatively safe LiFe battery. And it looks pretty good.

The internal combustion sedans and HEVs in BYD's line-up also look impressive, with impressive performance specs and features.

The firm is holding a press conference this morning at the Geneva Auto Show, which starts later this week, and is expected to announce the arrival of the e6 EV on European and American shores starting in Southern California in late 2010.

Notable about BYD is their commitment to vertical integration. Austin said that he toured the mile-long auto production facility in Shenzen, China and that BYD is manufacturing everything in the car except for the tires and windshield glass. That means BYD airbags, BYD seatbelts, BYD batteries, BYD transmissions, etc.

This same vertical integration is seen in BYD's solar panel manufacturing process -- BYD owns the mines for the feedstock, and builds everything from feedstock through ingot to cells to panels. This also applies to their battery build, as well.

And if that wasn't enough of a commitment to going big in greentech, BYD is also building utility-scale battery based grid storage from their LiFe batteries. They are deploying 4-megawatt energy storage batteries for ancillary services and energy arbitrage. Austin said the battery cost was in the $500-per-kilowatt range, which is within striking distance of many expert's competitive target of $250-per-kilowatt.

Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway, through its MidAmerican Energy unit, bought a ten-percent stake in BYD for $230 million in 2008. In a recent investor letter, Buffett valued his $230 million in 2008 now at $1.99 billion.

The firm is investing billions into the solar panel factory, which is said to have up to 500 megawatts of capacity.

It looks like Chinese businesses are taking greentech world leadership very seriously.

A slide from a recent BYD presentation follows that illustrates the vertical integration this company brings to bear.

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Oh Three Gorges.

Can't really post this with a straight face. Ah well, we'll hear more things like this when we actually visit the dam.

Also, if you click through to the link, you can hear a robo-voice read the article aloud in English.

Three Gorges Dam champions clean energy program
09:02, February 23, 2010

Long before climate change became a global issue, inspiring reams of editorial coverage and the Copenhagen Summit, the Three Gorges Dam, the largest construction project in China since the building of the Great Wall, was attracting environmental ire around the world.

Now the mammoth decade-old project, the world's largest hydropower plant, contains a vast 175 m deep reservoir and stretches 660 km along the Yangtze River in central China. To date, it has generated 364.6 billion kW of electricity.

The China Three Gorges Corporation, the dam's operator, believes that the project's success has confounded the criticism of overseas commentators who sought to highlight its potentially negative impact on the environment. In fact, says the company, the dam is now playing a crucial role in reducing China's overall level of greenhouse gas emissions.

Li Yong'an, president of the China Three Gorges Corporation, recently received an award for his company's contribution to the development of China's clean energy program.

Are America’s Fears of a Greentech Race with China Unfounded?

I'm a member of the Green Jobs group in LinkedIn, and the following article is a discussion topic for the group. (And almost as interesting as the article are some of the comments. I posted one below.)

The article can be found here:

The article begins: "There has been growing talk about a clean-tech race between China and the U.S., often cast in ominous tones. But the quest to develop and implement renewable energy can be one where both nations win."

You can also vote at the bottom on the following question:

Should The United States Fear a Greening China?

  • No, China has not been able to duplicate innovation in technology and there is no way to export installation and sales jobs.
  • Yes, Instead of the US depending on the Middle East for energy, we will be relying on China for alternative energy and contine to lose jobs to them.

And the comment:

America should not "fear" a Greentech Race with China.
Read THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN's "Earth Race" strategy, modeled on the Space Race as an international competition in the renewable energy & cleantech space:
...the goal of Earth Racers is to focus on getting the U.S. Senate to pass an energy bill, with a long-term price on carbon that will really stimulate America to become the world leader in clean-tech.
If we lead by example, more people will follow us by emulation than by compulsion of some U.N. treaty.
"I believe that averting catastrophic climate change is a huge scale issue. The only engine big enough to impact Mother Nature is Father Greed: the Market.
Today, we need the Earth Race: who can be the first to invent the most clean technologies so men and women can live safely here on Earth.
Maybe the best thing President Obama could have done in Copenhagen was to make clear that America intends to win that race. All he needed to do in his speech was to look China’s prime minister in the eye and say: “I am going to get our Senate to pass an energy bill with a price on carbon so we can clean your clock in clean-tech. This is my moon shot. Game on!”
Because once we get America racing China, China racing Europe, Europe racing Japan, Japan racing Brazil, we can quickly move down the innovation-manufacturing curve and shrink the cost of electric cars, batteries, solar and wind so these are no longer luxury products for the wealthy nations but commodity items the third world can use and even produce.
start the conversation with giving birth to a “whole new industry” — one that will make us more energy independent, prosperous, secure, innovative, respected and able to out-green China in the next great global industry.
An Earth Race led by America — built on markets, economic competition, national self-interest and strategic advantage — is a much more self-sustaining way to reduce carbon emissions than a festival of voluntary, nonbinding commitments at a U.N. conference. Let the Earth Race begin."

(Posted by: Lloyd Helferty Advisory Committee Member at International Biochar Initiative)

China to focus on energy restructure in 2010

From China Daily - has links to other relevant articles as well.

China to focus on energy restructure in 2010

China would put more emphasis on adjusting its energy structure this year with focus on renewable energy and nuclear power, director of China's National Energy Administration (NEA) said in Beijing Tuesday.

Zhang Guobao, also vice-minister of the National Development and Reform Commission and member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), made the remarks in an exclusive interview with Xinhua before he attends CPPCC's annual session.

"I'm proud to say that China is at the world's advanced level in new energy development, but there is still much room for improvement," he said.

Zhang took wind power as an example. "Compared with wind power reserves of 2.6 billion kilowatts (kW), China's installed wind power capacity stood at only 22 million kW."

Zhang also highlighted China's determination in developing nuclear power projects, 21 of which are under construction in the country. Currently China has 11 nuclear power projects in operation.

The Chinese government has voluntarily announced ahead of the Copenhagen climate summit that it would cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of the GDP by 40 percent to 45 percent by 2020 from the 2005 level, which represents reduction of roughly 1.5 billion tons of emissions.

Rare Earth Metals - China's Search in Africa

You may recall that I presented on China's 'uranium gap' and their increasing foreign relations with Africa to secure strategic resources. Same thing applies with rare earth metals on the African continent.

August 2009

The race for strategic minerals

Africa's mineral reserves are drawing interest from Asian and Western states determined to secure supplies and counter wild price fluctuations

Strategic minerals are back in fashion and - along with oil and gas - at the centre of geopolitical rivalries between industrial economies in Asia and the West. New technologies have failed to free modern economies from their dependence on base metals and rare minerals: for example, fibre-optics are replacing copper cables, but demand for the associated cobalt for superalloys used in jet engines and gas turbines is growing fast. Competition is increasing over price and secure supplies between Asia's super economies - China, India and Japan - and with Western economies.

Demand for these minerals is rising again after a sharp fall at the start of the global slowdown, and Africa offers some of the richest pickings for the commercial rivals. Asian economies - which are securing uranium for nuclear reactors and investing in copper, iron and manganese mines for traditional industries - are the biggest spenders and Africa's best chance for a turn-around.

Meanwhile, with inventories full and falling demand for finished products, the Africa-Asia minerals trade slumped badly this year. Beijing's Commerce Ministry reports that China-Africa trade has already dropped more than 30% in the first half of 2009.

'Since most imports from Africa consist of natural resources such as metals and oil', the lower prices for those commodities lowers the value of trade. Chinese officials said that China-Africa trade fell to US$37.1 billion for the first half of 2009 compared to $48 bn. for the same period last year. Although trade shrunk, China's investment in Africa increased by 81% to $552 mn. for the first half of the year, compared with 2008.

Demand for metals is slowly recovering after last year's collapse, driven partly by the prospect of buying supplies at historic lows: as the construction business picks up, copper prices are back near 2008 prices. By mid-August, copper prices in London hit an eleven-month high at $6,425 a metric tonne following a doubling of Chinese imports in early 2009.

By June, zinc prices had risen enough to tempt some Chinese companies to re-export their recently acquired stocks. In July, China's imports of oil and iron ore hit record levels. While short-term prospects may still be shaded by gloom, Germany's Deutsche Bank forecasts that China's demand for iron, copper and manganese will grow 10% a year for the next decade, while demand for oil and coal demand will rise by 20% a year. Adding more heat to global resource competition is talk of 'peak' oil and 'peak' minerals production. Supporters of those controversial arguments suggest that production may already be in terminal decline, with supplies of certain minerals set to dry up within decades.

Mind the mergers

Industry analysts predict that Chinese-financed mergers and acquisitions this year will double their level of $52.1 bn. in 2008. China is also targeting oil and mining companies: its state-owned companies completed the purchase of Switzerland's Addax Petroleum this month and are bidding for Britain's Emerald Energy and Argentina's Respol YPF.

Aluminium company Chinalco's failed bid to increase its stake in Rio Tinto, which holds a substantial portfolio in Africa, is unlikely to deter other Chinese companies from buying into existing entities, but they are looking more seriously at smaller companies in Africa to buy up unexploited iron-ore deposits in order to avoid dependence on supplies from the biggest iron producers: Rio Tinto, BHP Billiton and Brazil's Vale.

Several companies sitting on substantial mineral resources are talking to Asian financiers: for example, Australia's Sundance Resources is seeking investors from South Korea and India to help finance the massive mine development costs of its multi-billion dollar Mbalam iron ore project in Cameroon.

At the top end of the market, Chinalco is among those - such as Vale and Swiss-based Xstrata - manoeuvering to take over South African conglomerate Anglo American, which controls one of the most diversified range of mineral assets.

Asia's search for strategic minerals is more than a shopping spree: for India, securing uranium for power and armaments has become a priority. In July, France's Areva offered the state-owned Nuclear Power Corporation of India a stake in several uranium mines in Niger, Namibia and Central African Republic. Discussions continue but Delhi is likely to agree; acquiring uranium has been more difficult since its refusal to sign the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty.

China's demand for Africa's minerals outstrips that of India and Japan (see Map) and it has the foreign reserves to finance its ambitions. Following the consolidation of the state-owned mining sector, Chinese companies are better equipped to bid for international assets (AAC Vol 2 No 8). Giving new impetus, in August, China's Land and Resources Ministry confirmed plans for a strategic mineral stockpile to guard against swings in commodity demand and pricing. Beijing is to launch a 'reserve and protection system' for coal, copper, oil, tin and tungsten, and to build a huge underground oil reservoir.

In June, the China Development Bank-backed China-Africa Development Fund announced a new mineral-focused investment project with the defence industries-focused China Poly Group. The new China-Africa Investment Development Co., which is 55% controlled by CDB and 45% by Poly Group, is targeting iron, gold and oil exploration for its initial investments.

Asia-Africa trade shows a strong dependence on the trade in resources other than hydrocarbons. In 2008, about $2 bn. of India-South Africa trade was in gold. China (the biggest consumer of copper and cobalt) buys 75-90% of its cobalt from Congo-Kinshasa; Gabon, South Africa and Ghana are among China's top five manganese suppliers.

With China-Africa trade relations, resource dependency leads to strong political ties. How much leverage does this give Asia's biggest customer? South Africa exports 40% of its iron ore, 72% of its cobalt and 20% of its manganese to China, and its government infuriated human rights advocates when it refused a visa to the Dalai Lama (AAC Vol 2 No 6).

Countries housing China's multi-billion dollar mining deals, like Congo-Kinshasa, have gone to battle with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund to defend the deals in the face of threats to future debt relief (see Congo-K Briefing). China's promise of billions of investment dollars has helped the government toughen its stance against the Bank and the IMF. The $5 bn. China-Zimbabwe platinum deal (AAC Vol 2 No 9) could have a similar effect or pre-empt negotiations with the IMF.

Asian buyers have been waiting for the bottom of the market to get the best deals. When Kimberley Consolidated Mining had cash flow problems in May, China National Geological and Mining Corporation offered finance in a deal to be finalised soon. Also in South Africa, the China-Africa Development Fund offered to support the ailing Pamodzi Gold with 626 mn. rand ($80 mn.) financing in exchange for an equity stake.

Most Asian companies prefer, like their Western counterparts, to buy minerals in Africa and process them elsewhere, but they all face growing African pressure to invest in beneficiation and transfer skills and technology. Those small-scale Chinese smelters in eastern Congo-Kinshasa were among the first to close when the recession began to bite but larger Asian outfits know that they will have to invest in processing operations in Africa as part of the necessary cost of their search for strategic minerals.

Tuesday, March 2, 2010

Science, Geology & Politics -- More on rare earths

To follow on, here is an excellent posting on Rare Earths, the US and China from the BBC.

"The rare earth story goes to the heart of China's relationship with the West - not just that, but to the heart of the West's inability to understand China. It is a complicated story, involving a whole chunk of the Periodic Table, high secrecy, patent battles and conspiracy theory.
But it boils down to this - 97% of the specialist metals that are crucial to green technology are currently mined in China. China is already limiting exports and has plans to limit them some more. As a result much of the hi-tech metals industry is also moving to China."

As hybrid cars gobble rare metals, shortage looms | Reuters

A link to a Reuters' press article answering some questions concerning China's rare metals resources and world demand for electric vehicles batteries and wind turbines.


As hybrid cars gobble rare metals, shortage looms | Reuters

Lookout GreenTech World, China's BYD is coming.


This company brings new meaning to the words vertical integration, check out the story above.